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Asperger and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
Cognitive-Behaviour Therapy and Coaching
Social Communication, Empathy, Relationships, Organisation
ASD and Support for Adults
Asperger and High-Functioning Autism

Asperger is one of the autism spectrum disorders. Individuals with Asperger Syndrome often experience a number of problems: Appropriately recognising and communicating emotions, starting and maintaining friendships and relationships, finding and keeping a job, joining a network of colleagues and negotiating problems in the family or in relationships. The correct assessment and diagnosis of the condition is important, followed by psychological support and therapy.

How often does some form of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) occur?

It is commonly believed that the number of children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder has increased in recent years. The US Center for Disease Control and Prevention reports a 29 percent increase in autism prevalence since 2008 and a 62 percent increase since 2006. According to this study, one in 42 boys and one in 189 girls fall on the autism spectrum.

A recent study by the University of Queensland, however, states that the number of individuals with ASD is neither raising nor falling. This study considered research data from 1990 to 2010. The authors claim that one person in 132 has some form of ASD and that the prevalence has not changed since 1990.

Less controversal is that there are gender differences with regards to the prevalence of Aspergers and ASD: Both Aspergers and ASD are more often observed in men than in women. In particular High-Functioning Autism is more frequently diagnosed in men.

Asperger, DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) and ICD-11

DSM-5 was introduced in 2013 and states (p.51) that "Individuals with a well-established DSM-IV diagnosis of ... Asperger's disorder ... should be given the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder. Individuals who have marked deficits in social communication, but whose symptoms do not otherwise meet the criteria for autism spectrum disorder, should be evaluated for social (pragmatic) communication disorder."

Social Communication Disorder points to a language impairment and focuses on the pragmatic aspects of verbal behaviour (thereby moving away from those traits that are autistic). This is all about the social use of language. Please see our page on Social Communication Disorder for more details.

ICD-11 (International Classification of Diseases, 11th Revision) by the World Health Organisation (WHO) was introduced in 2018. ICD-11 (6A02.0) introduces an "autism spectrum disorder without disorder of intellectual development and with mild or no impairment of functional language." ICD-11 provides the following description "All definitional requirements for autism spectrum disorder are met, intellectual functioning and adaptive behaviour are found to be at least within the average range ..., and there is only mild or no impairment in the individual's capacity to use functional language (spoken or signed) for instrumental purposes, such as to express personal needs and desires."

ICD-11 (6A02.0) is very close, if not identical, to the original DSM-IV definition of Aspergers syndrome.

Aspergers in the Media

Adult Asperger is a condition that has received media attention, partially due to very successful TV shows such as "Big Bang Theory" and "Doc Martin". Both shows feature at least one character who is suspected of having Adult Asperger Syndrome in combination with obsessive-compulsive traits. Individuals with Asperger are often very intelligent, well educated and perform at a high level in technical professions. Furthermore, adolescents and adults affected by Asperger often have a high level of awareness of the condition and many have formed strong identities as "Aspies".

While the media has been successful in creating an awareness of social communication problems, many individuals with Aspergers struggle in relationships and sometimes in the professional area as well. The inability to efficiently communicate emotional content (or to perceive emotions accurately) is too much of a challenge. Sometimes, social isolation is felt intensly, on other occasions, close proximity to other people induces stress. In addition, partners struggle as well because of a lack of emotional awareness and sometimes a perceived lack of warmth in the relationship.

Here more information on the use of Psychological Therapy for Autism Spectrum Disorder.